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Findings from PA Consulting Group's 2017 annual CO₂ emissions analysis featured in Autocar.
The article notes that, according to PA’s report, only four of the 11 big car makers – Volvo, JLR, Toyota and Renault-Nissan – will meet their individual CO₂ requirements. VW, FCA, PSA Group, Ford, BMW, Hyundai-Kia and Daimler will all miss their targets.
Additionally, fines in 2021 (levied at 95 per gram over the limit for each vehicle sold) could range from a massive 1.36 billion for VW to 307 million for Ford and 126m for Daimler.
The carmakers race to 2021 has started